The Republic appears to have concentrated on building a fleet of Republic attack cruisers, aka Venator Star Destroyers, painted red; these decorations were removed after Palpatine declared Empire. A standard deployment appears to be 1-3 cruisers.
An unknown but fairly large number of craft were involved in the battle over Coruscant, ranging from Vulture droids to the ring shaped battleships of the Trade Federation. The separatist ships seem to be supplied and operated by the Trade Federation, Banking Clan, and Commerce Guild; their fleet is inferior to that of the Republic. It is not entirely clear if this is an inferiority of tonnage, hulls, or simply training, but all three are possibilities.